Wednesday, December 5, 2018

Securing a company ... a group of basic steps a company can take


As a security professional, I understand the importance of using data classification to protect a company.  The day of believing that the firewall will protect you is unreal.  Today lots of companies treat computer security like a tomato, “secure” on the outside but leave a soft and mushy target on the inside.  We need to rethink this and classify our data based on the risk and value to the company.  As users click on emails and bad web sites, the risk of successful attacks like ransomware and other security breaches increase.

As a security professional who deals with this issue regularly, it amazes me that companies do not have a process to understand what data in the company is more important than another.  One of the first steps I undertake as a consultant is to understand what a company has from both an infrastructure and data focus.

Does your company have baselines on your servers and network technology?

Do you know what services are running on your servers?

Do you know what ports are open?

If not, how would you know if you were compromised?

Do you use a change management system to approve, test, update systems and record new baselines?

Have you created a portfolio of all the applications that you use, and who is responsible for them?

For the applications you have running, do you understand the workflows and interactions between systems?

Have you built a data classification process that is used by the company? Listing, for example, the following classifications: Finance data, Human Resources data, Customer data, Public data etc.?  Not all data in a company needs the same level of protection.

After building a data classification process, you can next work on the data owners starting to put the data the company owns into proper classifications.

There is tool that you can use to help you with this task. For example, in Windows, there is the File Server Resource Manager (FSRM).  One of the features in FSRM is File Classification Infrastructure that provides a company insight into their data by automating classification processes so that the company can manage its data more effectively.  Companies can classify files, and apply policies, based on classification. Example policies include dynamic access control for restricting access to files, file encryption, and file expiration.  Files can be classified automatically by using file classification rules, or manually, by modifying the properties of a selected file or folder.

Until companies start to think about their data, and what must be protected, companies will continue to see major breaches to their systems.  Infrastructure needs to be understood. Systems need to be baselined.  And, processes documented.  Companies need to train users on what to look for, and what to do, if they have concerns about possible security incidents.  Companies need to train employees on email, possible attacks and vulnerabilities, and what an employee should do if they suspect a possible problem.

Companies need to create, and USE data classification systems to protect and add the appropriate level of security, to those data classifications that the company agrees are an issue.  Companies do not have unlimited resources, so companies should spend time and money protecting those things that are most important to the company.

 

This is the first of a group of blogs on this topic.
 

Sunday, December 2, 2018

Vulnerability chain exploits MacOS

Dropbox recently revealed three critical security vulnerabilities in MacOS that would allow execution of arbitrary programs on a target machine triggered just by visiting a webpage. The vulnerabilities were found by the cybersecurity firm Syndis, who were hired for red team exercises on Dropbox’s infrastructure. The three vulnerabilities by themselves were of minimal actual security impact on their own but when chained together could be used to compromise a target machine by simply getting them to visit a webpage.
The first vulnerability found (CVE-201713890) allowed a malicious webpage to force the target machine to mount an arbitrary disk image. This was due to a content identifier conflict in the Safari web browser. When known filetypes are handled in the Safari browser actions are taken to handle the media automatically. Usually this results in things like a media player opening to handle a download or a PDF client opening a document. But due to the same identifier being defined in multiple locations the wrong action was taken when downloading a .smi file.
The second vulnerability (CVE-20184176) starts the execution path of the arbitrary files in the disk image downloaded by the first vulnerability. During creation of a disk image the creator is able to use the bless utility to set specific options. One of those is —openfolder which allows Finder to open an arbitrary folder upon mounting a disk image. By pointing to a bundle file instead of a folder it will be executed when the image is mounted. Being able to launch the application isn’t quite enough though because the Gatekeeper utility prevents unsigned code from actually launching until it is whitelisted. 
The third vulnerability (CVE-2018-4175) allows launch of an arbitrary program from the malicious disk image without any security checks. The first step is to include a legitimate signed binary in the image, like the Terminal app. At this point the researchers tried launching a malicious script through the Terminal app but it was still blocked due to the quarantine flag being set. This is set when applications are downloaded from the internet and is cleared when the user explicitly says that the application is safe. By modifying the Info.plist for the bundle they were able to associate a new filetype with the Terminal app. When launching the newly associated filetype the quarantine flag was not checked and code execution was achieved.
This vulnerability chain highlights how a string of seemingly not serious vulnerabilities can often be strung together to achieve a compromise. The vulnerabilities were reported to Apple in February and patched in their March security update.

Sources
https:// thehackernews.com/2018/11/applemacos-zeroday.html
https://blogs.dropbox.com/ tech/2018/11/offensive-testing-tomake-dropbox-and-the-world-asafer-place/
and Peraton

Friday, November 30, 2018

New breakthroughs in combatting tech support scams

This is an article from Microsoft that i thought was intresting..

On Nov. 27 and 28, over 100 local India law enforcement officials from Gurgaon and Noida raided 16 call center locations identified as engaged in tech support fraud by Microsoft, resulting in 39 arrests so far. These call center operations fraudulently represented themselves as affiliated with a number of respected companies including Microsoft, Apple, Google, Dell and HP.  The New York Times reports that Senior Superintendent of Police Ajay Pal Sharma stated “the scammers had extracted money from thousands of victims, most of whom were American or Canadian.” Microsoft alone has received over 7,000 victim reports associated with these 16 locations from over 15 countries.
Anyone may receive an unwanted phone call or experience a pop-up window on your device with a “warning” that your computer has a problem requiring immediate tech support. These messages are often very convincing and use scare tactics to entice consumers into contacting a fraudulent “tech support” call center. Call center operators typically encourage the victim to provide remote access to their device for “further diagnosis” before charging the victim a fee – typically between $150 – $499 – for unnecessary tech support services. In addition to losing money, victims leave their computer vulnerable to other attacks, such as malware, during a remote access session.
This latest raid comes just six weeks after the successful raid operation by the Delhi Cyber Crime Cell of 10 call center locations resulting in the arrest of 24 individuals and the seizure of substantial evidence including call scripts, live chats, voice call recordings and customer records from tech support fraud operations. The case was also registered by the Delhi Cyber Crime Cell on the basis of a complaint by Microsoft.
 
 
Tech support fraud operations typically involve multiple entities including those engaged in marketing, payment processing and call centers. Recent law enforcement successes in India build on a solid track record of global law enforcement taking action to combat the multiple layers of tech support fraud supported by referrals from Microsoft and other industry partners. For example, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission and multiple partners announced 16 separate civil and criminal enforcement actions against tech support fraudsters in May 2017 as part of “Operation Tech Trap.”  And, in June 2017, the City of London Police announced the arrest of four individuals engaged in computer software services fraud.
Our work to partner with law enforcement agencies in addressing this problem is driven by a combination of technology and action taken by our customers. In 2014, Microsoft launched an online “report a scam” portal to enable victims to share their tech support fraud experiences directly with our Digital Crimes Unit team. The reports have been a critical starting point for our international investigations and referrals. Our data analytics and innovation team has added additional tools to proactively hunt and pull data from approximately 150,000 suspicious pop-ups daily targeting millions of people and use machine learning to identify those related to tech support fraud.
In addition to making referrals to law enforcement based on this data, we are building what we learn about cybercriminals’ behavior into improved products and services for consumers. Microsoft has built-in protection in Windows 10 which includes more security features, safer authentication and ongoing updates delivered for the supported lifetime of a device. Windows Defender delivers comprehensive, real-time protection against software threats across email, cloud and the web. The SmartScreen filter, built into Windows, Microsoft Edge and Internet Explorer, helps protect against malicious websites and downloads, including many of those frustrating pop-up windows. People who have experienced tech support scams should know they aren’t alone, but there are steps you can take to identify and help defend yourself against criminals looking to impersonate legitimate companies. According to our recently released 2018 global survey, three out of five consumers have experienced a tech support scam in the previous 12 months. Although this reflects movement in the right direction, and a 5-point reduction since 2016, these scams persist and successfully target people across all ages and geographies. The best thing you can do to help protect yourself from fraud is to educate yourself. If you receive a notification or call from someone claiming to be from a reputable software company, here are a few key tips to keep in mind:
  • Be wary of any unsolicited phone call or pop-up message on your device.
  • Microsoft will never proactively reach out to you to provide unsolicited PC or technical support. Any communication we have with you must be initiated by you.
  • Do not call the phone number in a pop-up window on your device and be cautious about clicking on notifications asking you to scan your computer or download software. Many scammers try to fool you into thinking their notifications are legitimate.
  • Never give control of your computer to a third party unless you can confirm that it is a legitimate representative of a computer support team with whom you are already a customer.
  • If skeptical, take the person’s information down and immediately report it to your local authorities
 

Starwood Guest Reservation Database Security Incident - Marriott


30 November 2018

Marriott values our guests and understands the importance of protecting personal information. We have taken measures to investigate and address a data security incident involving the Starwood guest reservation database. The investigation has determined that there was unauthorized access to the database, which contained guest information relating to reservations at Starwood properties on or before September 10, 2018. This notice explains what happened, measures we have taken, and some steps you can take in response.

On September 8, 2018, Marriott received an alert from an internal security tool regarding an attempt to access the Starwood guest reservation database. Marriott quickly engaged leading security experts to help determine what occurred. Marriott learned during the investigation that there had been unauthorized access to the Starwood network since 2014. Marriott recently discovered that an unauthorized party had copied and encrypted information, and took steps towards removing it. On November 19, 2018, Marriott was able to decrypt the information and determined that the contents were from the Starwood guest reservation database.

Marriott has not finished identifying duplicate information in the database, but believes it contains information on up to approximately 500 million guests who made a reservation at a Starwood property. For approximately 327 million of these guests, the information includes some combination of name, mailing address, phone number, email address, passport number, Starwood Preferred Guest (“SPG”) account information, date of birth, gender, arrival and departure information, reservation date, and communication preferences. For some, the information also includes payment card numbers and payment card expiration dates, but the payment card numbers were encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard encryption (AES-128). There are two components needed to decrypt the payment card numbers, and at this point, Marriott has not been able to rule out the possibility that both were taken. For the remaining guests, the information was limited to name and sometimes other data such as mailing address, email address, or other information. Marriott reported this incident to law enforcement and continues to support their investigation. We have already begun notifying regulatory authorities.
Go here for more information

Tuesday, November 27, 2018

Major Online Ad Fraud Operation


U.S. Department of Homeland Security US-CERT

National Cyber Awareness System:

 


11/27/2018 12:09 PM EST

 

Original release date: November 27, 2018

Systems Affected


Microsoft Windows

Overview


This joint Technical Alert (TA) is the result of analytic efforts between the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). DHS and FBI are releasing this TA to provide information about a major online ad fraud operation—referred to by the U.S. Government as "3ve"—involving the control of over 1.7 million unique Internet Protocol (IP) addresses globally, when sampled over a 10-day window.

Description


Online advertisers desire premium websites on which to publish their ads and large numbers of visitors to view those ads. 3ve created fake versions of both (websites and visitors), and funneled the advertising revenue to cyber criminals. 3ve obtained control over 1.7 million unique IPs by leveraging victim computers infected with Boaxxe/Miuref and Kovter malware, as well as Border Gateway Patrol-hijacked IP addresses. 

Boaxxe/Miuref Malware


Boaxxe malware is spread through email attachments and drive-by downloads. The ad fraud scheme that utilizes the Boaxxe botnet is primarily located in a data center. Hundreds of machines in this data center are browsing to counterfeit websites. When these counterfeit webpages are loaded into a browser, requests are made for ads to be placed on these pages. The machines in the data center use the Boaxxe botnet as a proxy to make requests for these ads. A command and control (C2) server sends instructions to the infected botnet computers to make the ad requests in an effort to hide their true data center IPs.

Kovter Malware


Kovter malware is also spread through email attachments and drive-by downloads. The ad fraud scheme that utilizes the Kovter botnet runs a hidden Chromium Embedded Framework (CEF) browser on the infected machine that the user cannot see. A C2 server tells the infected machine to visit counterfeit websites. When the counterfeit webpage is loaded in the hidden browser, requests are made for ads to be placed on these counterfeit pages. The infected machine receives the ads and loads them into the hidden browser.

Impact


For the indicators of compromise (IOCs) below, keep in mind that any one indicator on its own may not necessarily mean that a machine is infected. Some IOCs may be present for legitimate applications and network traffic as well, but are included here for completeness.

Boaxxe/Miuref Malware


Boaxxe malware leaves several executables on the infected machine. They may be found in one or more of the following locations:

  • %UserProfile%\AppData\Local\VirtualStore\lsass.aaa
  • %UserProfile%\AppData\Local\Temp lt;RANDOM>.exe
  • %UserProfile%\AppData\Local lt;Random eight-character folder name> lt;original file name>.exe

The HKEY_CURRENT_USER (HKCU) “Run” key is set to the path to one of the executables created above.

  • HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run lt;Above path to executable>\

Kovter Malware


Kovter malware is found mostly in the registry, but the following files may be found on the infected machine:

  • %UserProfile\AppData\Local\Temp lt;RANDOM> .exe/.bat
  • %UserProfile%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5 lt;RANDOM> lt;RANDOM FILENAME>.exe
  • %UserProfile%\AppData\Local lt;RANDOM> lt;RANDOM>.lnk
  • %UserProfile%\AppData\Local lt;RANDOM> lt;RANDOM>.bat

Kovter is known to hide in the registry under:

  • HKCU\SOFTWARE lt;RANDOM> lt;RANDOM>

The customized CEF browser is dropped to:

  • %UserProfile%\AppData\Local lt;RANDOM>

The keys will look like random values and contain scripts. In some values, a User-Agent string can be clearly identified. An additional key containing a link to a batch script on the hard drive may be placed within registry key:

  • HKCU\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

There are several patterns in the network requests that are made by Kovter malware when visiting the counterfeit websites. The following are regex rules for these URL patterns:

  • /?ptrackp=\d{5,8}
  • /feedrs\d/click?feed_id=\d{1,5}&sub_id=\d{1,5}&cid=[a-f0-9-]*&spoof_domain=[\w\.\d-_]*&land_ip=\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}
  • /feedrs\d/vast_track?a=impression&feed_id=\d{5}&sub_id=\d{1,5}&sub2_id=\d{1,5}&cid=[a-f\d-]

The following is a YARA rule for detecting Kovter:

rule KovterUnpacked {
  meta:
    desc = "Encoded strings in unpacked Kovter samples."
  strings:
    $ = "7562@3B45E129B93"
    $ = "@ouhKndCny"
    $ = "@ouh@mmEdctffdsr"
    $ = "@ouhSGQ"
  condition:
    all of them
}

Solution


If you believe you may be a victim of 3ve and its associated malware or hijacked IPs, and have information that may be useful to investigators, submit your complaint to www.ic3.gov and use the hashtag 3ve (#3ve) in the body of your complaint.

DHS and FBI advise users to take the following actions to remediate malware infections associated with Boaxxe/Miuref or Kovter:

  • Use and maintain antivirus software. Antivirus software recognizes and protects your computer against most known viruses. Security companies are continuously updating their software to counter these advanced threats. Therefore, it is important to keep your antivirus software up-to-date. If you suspect you may be a victim of malware, update your antivirus software definitions and run a full-system scan. (See Understanding Anti-Virus Software for more information.)
  • Avoid clicking links in email. Attackers have become very skilled at making phishing emails look legitimate. Users should ensure the link is legitimate by typing the link into a new browser. (See Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing Attacks.)
  • Change your passwords. Your original passwords may have been compromised during the infection, so you should change them. (See Choosing and Protecting Passwords.)
  • Keep your operating system and application software up-to-date. Install software patches so that attackers cannot take advantage of known problems or vulnerabilities. You should enable automatic updates of the operating system if this option is available. (See Understanding Patches and Software Updates for more information.)
  • Use anti-malware tools. Using a legitimate program that identifies and removes malware can help eliminate an infection. Users can consider employing a remediation tool. A non-exhaustive list of examples is provided below. The U.S. Government does not endorse or support any particular product or vendor.

References


Monday, November 12, 2018

There are many frameworks that you can use to protect a company infrastructure


They are many different approaches to helping a company look at protection of assets and data for a repeatable process.

There is Cobit by ISACA, COBIT stands for Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology. It is a framework created by the ISACA (Information Systems Audit and Control Association) for IT governance and management. It was designed to be a supportive tool for managers—and allows bridging the crucial gap between technical issues, business risks, and control requirements. You can learn about COBIT here.

The National Institute of Standards and Technology  (NIST) SP 800 The NIST SP 800 documents are a series of publications put forth by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce. The SP 800 series was established in 1990 and has grown quite a bit since then, encompassing a large, in-depth, and ever-growing set of computer security documents seen by many as industry leading. Additionally, the NIST SP 800 documents have been well-known to many professionals within the field of information technology - particularly that of information security -as they gained additional recognition with the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002, known as FISMA. You can see the SP 800 files here.

Cybersecurity Framework Version 1.1 CSF. This voluntary Framework consists of standards, guidelines, and best practices to manage cybersecurity-related risk.  The Cybersecurity Framework’s prioritized, flexible, and cost-effective approach helps to promote the protection and resilience of critical infrastructure and other sectors important to the economy and national security. You can learn about CSF here.

The ISO/IEC 27000 family of standards helps organizations keep information assets secure. Using this family of standards will help your organization manage the security of assets such as financial information, intellectual property, employee details or information entrusted to you by third parties. ISO/IEC 27001 is the best-known standard in the family providing requirements for an information security management system (ISMS). There are more than a dozen standards in the 27000 family, you can see them here.

Most of us know about MITRE CVE’s who sole purpose is to provide common vulnerability identifiers called “CVE Entries.” CVE does not provide severity scoring or prioritization ratings for software vulnerabilities. However, while separate, the CVSS standard can be used to score the severity of CVE Entries.        

One you might not know about is MITRE ATT&CK™

MITRE also has the ATT&CK™ is a globally-accessible knowledge base of adversary tactics and techniques based on real-world observations. The ATT&CK knowledge base is used as a foundation for the development of specific threat models and methodologies in the private sector, in government, and in the cybersecurity product and service community.  With the creation of ATT&CK, MITRE is fulfilling its mission to solve problems for a safer world — by bringing communities together to develop more effective cybersecurity. ATT&CK is open and available to any person or organization for use at no charge. You can find out more here.

Friday, November 9, 2018

Windows 10 shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts are keys or combinations of keys that provide an alternative way to do something that you’d typically do with a mouse.

Copy, paste, and other general keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
Ctrl + X Cut the selected item
Ctrl + C (or Ctrl + Insert) Copy the selected item
Ctrl + V (or Shift + Insert) Paste the selected item
Ctrl + Z Undo an action
Alt + Tab Switch between open apps
Alt + F4 Close the active item, or exit the active app
Windows logo key  + L Lock your PC
Windows logo key  + D Display and hide the desktop
F2 Rename the selected item
F3 Search for a file or folder in File Explorer
F4 Display the address bar list in File Explorer
F5 Refresh the active window
F6 Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop
F10 Activate the Menu bar in the active app
Alt + F8 Show your password on the sign-in screen
Alt + Esc Cycle through items in the order in which they were opened
Alt + underlined letter Perform the command for that letter
Alt + Enter Display properties for the selected item
Alt + Spacebar Open the shortcut menu for the active window
Alt + Left arrow Go back
Alt + Right arrow Go forward
Alt + Page Up Move up one screen
Alt + Page Down Move down one screen
Ctrl + F4 Close the active document (in apps that are full-screen and let you have multiple documents open at the same time)
Ctrl + A Select all items in a document or window
Ctrl + D (or Delete) Delete the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin
Ctrl + R (or F5) Refresh the active window
Ctrl + Y Redo an action
Ctrl + Right arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the next word
Ctrl + Left arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous word
Ctrl + Down arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the next paragraph
Ctrl + Up arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous paragraph
Ctrl + Alt + Tab Use the arrow keys to switch between all open apps
Alt + Shift + arrow keys When a group or tile is in focus on the Start menu, move it in the direction specified
Ctrl + Shift + arrow keys When a tile is in focus on the Start menu, move it into another tile to create a folder
Ctrl + arrow keys Resize the Start menu when it's open
Ctrl + arrow key (to move to an item) + Spacebar Select multiple individual items in a window or on the desktop
Ctrl + Shift with an arrow key Select a block of text
Ctrl + Esc Open Start
Ctrl + Shift + Esc Open Task Manager
Ctrl + Shift Switch the keyboard layout when multiple keyboard layouts are available
Ctrl + Spacebar Turn the Chinese input method editor (IME) on or off
Shift + F10 Display the shortcut menu for the selected item
Shift with any arrow key Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document
Shift + Delete Delete the selected item without moving it to the Recycle Bin first
Right arrow Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu
Left arrow Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu
Esc Stop or leave the current task
 

Windows logo key keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
Windows logo key  Open or close Start
Windows logo key  + A Open Action center
Windows logo key  + B Set focus in the notification area
Windows logo key  + C
Open Cortana in listening mode

Notes
  • This shortcut is turned off by default. To turn it on, select Start  > Settings  > Cortana, and turn on the toggle under Let Cortana listen for my commands when I press the Windows logo key + C.
  • Cortana is available only in certain countries/regions, and some Cortana features might not be available everywhere. If Cortana isn't available or is turned off, you can still use search.
Windows logo key  + Shift + C Open the charms menu
Windows logo key  + D Display and hide the desktop
Windows logo key  + Alt + D Display and hide the date and time on the desktop
Windows logo key  + E Open File Explorer
Windows logo key  + F Open Feedback Hub and take a screenshot
Windows logo key  + G Open Game bar when a game is open
Windows logo key  + H Start dictation
Windows logo key  + I Open Settings
Windows logo key  + J  Set focus to a Windows tip when one is available.

When a Windows tip appears, bring focus to the Tip.  Pressing the keyboard shortcuts again to bring focus to the element on the screen to which the Windows tip is anchored.
Windows logo key  + K Open the Connect quick action
Windows logo key  + L Lock your PC or switch accounts
Windows logo key  + M Minimize all windows
Windows logo key  + O Lock device orientation
Windows logo key  + P Choose a presentation display mode
Windows logo key  + R Open the Run dialog box
Windows logo key  + S Open search
Windows logo key  + T Cycle through apps on the taskbar
Windows logo key  + U Open Ease of Access Center
Windows logo key  + V Cycle through notifications
Windows logo key  + Shift + V Cycle through notifications in reverse order
Windows logo key  + X Open the Quick Link menu
Windows logo key  + Y Switch input between Windows Mixed Reality and your desktop
Windows logo key  + Z Show the commands available in an app in full-screen mode
Windows logo key  + period (.) or semicolon (;) Open emoji panel
Windows logo key  + comma (,) Temporarily peek at the desktop
Windows logo key  + Pause Display the System Properties dialog box
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + F Search for PCs (if you're on a network)
Windows logo key  + Shift + M Restore minimized windows on the desktop
Windows logo key  + number Open the desktop and start the app pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number. If the app is already running, switch to that app.
Windows logo key  + Shift + number Open the desktop and start a new instance of the app pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + number Open the desktop and switch to the last active window of the app pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number
Windows logo key  + Alt + number Open the desktop and open the Jump List for the app pinned to the taskbar in the position indicated by the number
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + Shift + number Open the desktop and open a new instance of the app located at the given position on the taskbar as an administrator
Windows logo key  + Tab Open Task view
Windows logo key  + Up arrow Maximize the window
Windows logo key  + Down arrow Remove current app from screen or minimize the desktop window
Windows logo key  + Left arrow Maximize the app or desktop window to the left side of the screen
Windows logo key  + Right arrow Maximize the app or desktop window to the right side of the screen
Windows logo key  + Home Minimize all except the active desktop window (restores all windows on second stroke)
Windows logo key  + Shift + Up arrow Stretch the desktop window to the top and bottom of the screen
Windows logo key  + Shift + Down arrow Restore/minimize active desktop windows vertically, maintaining width
Windows logo key  + Shift + Left arrow or Right arrow Move an app or window in the desktop from one monitor to another
Windows logo key  + Spacebar Switch input language and keyboard layout
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + Spacebar Change to a previously selected input
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + Enter Open Narrator
Windows logo key  + Plus (+) Open Magnifier
Windows logo key  + forward slash (/) Begin IME reconversion
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + V Open shoulder taps

 

Command Prompt keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
Ctrl + C (or Ctrl + Insert) Copy the selected text
Ctrl + V (or Shift + Insert) Paste the selected text
Ctrl + M Enter Mark mode
Alt + selection key Begin selection in block mode
Arrow keys Move the cursor in the direction specified
Page up Move the cursor by one page up
Page down Move the cursor by one page down
Ctrl + Home (Mark mode) Move the cursor to the beginning of the buffer
Ctrl + End (Mark mode) Move the cursor to the end of the buffer
Ctrl + Up arrow Move up one line in the output history
Ctrl + Down arrow Move down one line in the output history
Ctrl + Home (History navigation) If the command line is empty, move the viewport to the top of the buffer. Otherwise, delete all the characters to the left of the cursor in the command line.
Ctrl + End (History navigation) If the command line is empty, move the viewport to the command line. Otherwise, delete all the characters to the right of the cursor in the command line.

 

Dialog box keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
F4 Display the items in the active list
Ctrl + Tab Move forward through tabs
Ctrl + Shift + Tab Move back through tabs
Ctrl + number (number 1–9) Move to nth tab
Tab Move forward through options
Shift + Tab Move back through options
Alt + underlined letter Perform the command (or select the option) that is used with that letter
Spacebar Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box
Backspace Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box
Arrow keys Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons

 

File Explorer keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
Alt + D Select the address bar
Ctrl + E Select the search box
Ctrl + F Select the search box
Ctrl + N Open a new window
Ctrl + W Close the active window
Ctrl + mouse scroll wheel Change the size and appearance of file and folder icons
Ctrl + Shift + E Display all folders above the selected folder
Ctrl + Shift + N Create a new folder
Num Lock + asterisk (*) Display all subfolders under the selected folder
Num Lock + plus (+) Display the contents of the selected folder
Num Lock + minus (-) Collapse the selected folder
Alt + P Display the preview panel
Alt + Enter Open the Properties dialog box for the selected item
Alt + Right arrow View the next folder
Alt + Up arrow View the folder that the folder was in
Alt + Left arrow View the previous folder
Backspace View the previous folder
Right arrow Display the current selection (if it's collapsed), or select the first subfolder
Left arrow Collapse the current selection (if it's expanded), or select the folder that the folder was in
End Display the bottom of the active window
Home Display the top of the active window
F11 Maximize or minimize the active window

 

Virtual desktops keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
Windows logo key  + Tab Open Task view
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + D Add a virtual desktop
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + Right arrow Switch between virtual desktops you’ve created on the right
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + Left arrow Switch between virtual desktops you’ve created on the left
Windows logo key  + Ctrl + F4 Close the virtual desktop you're using

 

Taskbar keyboard shortcuts

Press this key To do this
Shift + click a taskbar button Open an app or quickly open another instance of an app
Ctrl + Shift + click a taskbar button Open an app as an administrator
Shift + right-click a taskbar button Show the window menu for the app
Shift + right-click a grouped taskbar button Show the window menu for the group
Ctrl + click a grouped taskbar button Cycle through the windows of the group

 


Friday, October 26, 2018

RID Hijacking

Relative Identifier (RID) Hijacking has recently gained public attention as a simple, novel, and effective technique to maintain persistence on a Windows system after initial compromise. As information security awareness continues to rise in many organizations their overall security posture also increases, especially in larger organizations that can afford it. As a result, many attackers are forced to leverage stealth techniques when targeting these types of companies to bypass security mechanisms.
RID Hijacking effectively allows attackers to assign higher level administrative privileges to lower level accounts that they might have direct access to after initial system compromise. What makes this method so attractive to attackers is that it leverages strictly Windows native commands to execute the technique, does not require installing any additional software, and is a relatively simple process. Therefore, it does not make much noise on a system and in many cases is difficult to detect unless defenders are carefully monitoring the Security Account Manager ( SAM) registry.
Since Windows XP, Windows uses the SAM to store security descriptors for user accounts. These Windows systems store most of this information in the ‘HKLM\SAM\SAM\Domains\Account\Use rs’ key, which does require SYSTEM level privileges to access. This key contains a variety of structured information representing user privilege information. The ‘Names’ subkey contains all the local user account names and looking at the ‘F’ value within this structure is a long number that contains the RID value at hex offset 30 within it along with other interesting information such as whether the account is enabled or disabled. According to security researcher, Sebastian Castro the RID copy stored in the ‘F’ value hex number is the value that is used by the Local Security Authority Subsystem Service (LSASS) and the Security Reference Monitor (SRM) to generate the primary access token used when translating from username to security identifier (SID). This token essentially is used on the system when users are attempting to access system services and applications. So if an attacker can modify the RID value to hex 0x1f4 or 500 in decimal of a guest user account as an example, they can give that guest account system level access. This technique is known as RID hijacking.
Sebastian Castro, the security researcher investigating this vulnerability also published an exploit which automates this attack in Metasploit, which is a popular open source exploit framework used by many worldwide. The exploit can be found at ‘post/windows/manage/ rid_hijack’ within the framework. This exploit has been tested on Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows 8.1, and Windows 10. The best-recommended way to defend against this attack is by monitoring the system registry and looking for inconsistencies within the SAM.
  Sources:
https://threatpost.com/trivial-postintrusion-attack-exploits-windowsrid/138448/  https://csl.com.co/en/rid-hijacking/

Zero-day jQuery Exploit

A zero-day exploit in the jQuery file upload tool may have had an open secret for years. A security researcher at Akamai Security Intelligence Response Team (SIRT) by the name of Larry Cashdollar found the exploit designated CVE-20189206. The vulnerability affects the plugin authored by Sabastian Tschan commonly known as “blueimp”. The jQuery File upload is one of the most starred plugins on github next to the jQuery framework itself. The tool appears to have been forked over 7800 times and has most likely been integrated on thousands of other projects. 
The vulnerability affects Apache web servers that have the plugin and has existed since Apache 2.3.9 when Apache disabled support for .htaccess security configuration files. Unfortunately, jQuery’s file upload relied on .htaccess, and Apache made the change only five days before Sabastian’s plugin was first published. Worse yet it seems that this exploit has been an open secret in the hacker community for years. An attacker can use the vulnerability to upload files without any validation required. This would allow attackers to upload back doors, key loggers, and even execute a web shell on the server. Cashdollar was able to get in touch with Sabastion, and together they were able to work to get the vulnerability fixed in the latest version for the jQuery file upload. However, both noted that it is unlikely to get deployed in all the other projects and/or servers that use the plugin. They stated that there is no accurate way to determine how many projects that have forked from the jQuery file upload and if they are being maintained by applying changes to the master project. Additionally, there are no good ways to determine how many production environments that possibly have the plugin integrated in them.
Cashdollar has also noted that he doubts that he is the only person to find the videos that demonstrate this vulnerability. The videos on YouTube indicate that this exploit has been known and used in some circles for years, so it is possible that hackers have been able to quietly utilize this method to execute remote code on webservers that are using the plugin. However, now that the code has been patched and the exploit has been made public, there is concern that that the risk has increased. With an unknown number of potential forked projects and environments that might use the tool the likelihood that the patch will not entirely eliminate the potential threat. If you want to test your environment for this vulnerability this link will help Https://gethub.com/lcashdol/treee/Exploits/ tree/master/CVE-2018-9206. There you will find the files that will test for three of the most commonly used variations of the exploit software.
Sources:
 https://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/10/22/jquery_file_flaw/
https://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/news/252451045/Zero-day-jQueryplugin-vulnerability-exploited-for-3-years
 https://www.zdnet.com/article/zero-day-in-popular-jquery-plugin-activelyexploited-for-at-least-three-years/  

Saturday, October 20, 2018

Windows 10, version 1809 Features removed or planned for replacement

Here is a Blog from Microsoft about changes to Windows 10 1809.

Features we removed in this release


We're removing the following features and functionalities from the installed product image in Windows 10, version 1809. Applications or code that depend on these features won't function in this release unless you use an alternate method.

Feature Instead you can use...
Business Scanning, also called Distributed Scan Management (DSM) We're removing this secure scanning and scanner management capability - there are no devices that support this feature.
FontSmoothing setting in unattend.xml The FontSmoothing setting let you specify the font antialiasing strategy to use across the system. We've changed Windows 10 to use ClearType by default, so we're removing this setting as it is no longer necessary. If you include this setting in the unattend.xml file, it'll be ignored.
Hologram app We've replaced the Hologram app with the Mixed Reality Viewer. If you would like to create 3D word art, you can still do that in Paint 3D and view your art in VR or Hololens with the Mixed Reality Viewer.
limpet.exe We're releasing the limpet.exe tool, used to access TPM for Azure connectivity, as open source.
Phone Companion When you update to Windows 10, version 1809, the Phone Companion app will be removed from your PC. Use the Phone page in the Settings app to sync your mobile phone with your PC. It includes all the Phone Companion features.
Future updates through Windows Embedded Developer Update for Windows Embedded Standard 8 and Windows Embedded 8 Standard We’re no longer publishing new updates to the WEDU server. Instead, you may secure any new updates from the Microsoft Update Catalog.

Features we’re no longer developing


We're no longer actively developing these features and may remove them from a future update. Some features have been replaced with other features or functionality, while others are now available from different sources.

If you have feedback about the proposed replacement of any of these features, you can use the Feedback Hub app.

Feature Instead you can use...
Companion device dynamic lock APIS The companion device framework (CDF) APIs enable wearables and other devices to unlock a PC. In Windows 10, version 1709, we introduced Dynamic Lock, including an inbox method using Bluetooth to detect whether a user is present and lock or unlock the PC. Because of this, and because third party partners didn't adopt the CDF method, we're no longer developing CDF Dynamic Lock APIs.
OneSync service The OneSync service synchronizes data for the Mail, Calendar, and People apps. We've added a sync engine to the Outlook app that provides the same synchronization.
Snipping Tool The Snipping Tool is an application included in Windows 10 that is used to capture screenshots, either the full screen or a smaller, custom "snip" of the screen. In Windows 10, version 1809, we're introducing a new universal app, Snip & Sketch, that provides the same screen snipping abilities, as well as additional features. You can launch Snip & Sketch directly and start a snip from there, or just press WIN + Shift + S. Snip & Sketch can also be launched from the “Screen snip” button in the Action Center. We're no longer developing the Snipping Tool as a separate app but are instead consolidating its functionality into Snip & Sketch.

macOS 10.12 Draft NIST Security Configuration Checklist


NIST invites comments on Draft Special Publication (SP) 800-179 Revision 1, Guide to Securing macOS 10.12 Systems for IT Professionals: A NIST Security Configuration Checklist. This publication assists IT professionals in securing macOS 10.12 desktop and laptop systems within various environments. It provides detailed information about the security features of macOS 10.12 and security configuration guidelines. The publication recommends and explains tested, secure settings with the objective of simplifying the administrative burden of improving the security of macOS 10.12 systems in three types of environments: standalone, managed, and specialized security-limited functionality.
A public comment period for this document is open until November 16, 2018. We strongly encourage you to use the comment template for submitting your comments.
CSRC Update:
https://csrc.nist.gov/news/2018/nist-releases-draft-sp-800-179-rev-1-for-comment

Publication Details:
https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/details/sp/800-179/rev-1/draft